Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction between linguistic and gestural elements in signed languages, from the formation of its lexicon to its discourse organization. Using theoretical and methodological resources from gesture studies and cognitive linguistics, particularly conceptual integration blending theory, the paper analyzes a narrative told in Brazilian Sign Language by a deaf adult. Results reveal how, in narrative, a close collaboration between gesture and language contributes crucially to the construction of grammatical relations and meaning, discourse cohesion, and narrative structure, thus suggesting that the partnership of gesture and language lies at the very heart of signed language grammar.
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This abstract may be abridged. The serious shortages in laboratories, libraries, didactic material, digital inclusion and other things only make the situation even more difficult. Even though our secondary education has expanded rapidly over the last few years, even so only a very small slice of the Brazilian population completes this stage. The average educational level of Brazilians under the age of eight is very low when compared with developed countries and even with other Latin American countries. They are therefore regarded as interesting hubs for developing continuing education programs for teachers, via training, empowerment, improvement or action-research groups Hein, According to Machado apud Quintela :.
The first museums conceived and created by those in power in the past collectors, great masters and sovereigns , were inspired by the idea of bringing together the greatest possible number of rare, strange, rich and memorable objects and works, and to display them in order to reaffirm their power.
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Created by the kings of France, for elite members of the nobility, the Louvre was the first institution designated as a museum. Access to these collections was very restricted, as they were only open to the nobility and clergy Reis, This was formed in as a museum intended mainly for university students. According to Gaspar , p. During approximately the same era, other European monarchs started to allow the public limited access to their art collections.
They were crammed full of objects from different areas of knowledge, such as: coins, fossils, scientific instruments and other items, all placed randomly. Nevertheless, they were select places, and visits were still restricted to noblemen, monks, poets, scholars and other such people Reis, According to Hobsbawn , p. For them, science was magic. However, their activities were limited to promoting industrial development, and the museums worked as showcases for industry Padilla, As stated by Cazelli et al , p. According to Leon , p. They were limited to their usual audience".
It is regarded as the precursor to contemporary science and technology museums, an innovation making use of interactions and seeking a new way of communicating with the public Cazelli et al, Later on, other science museums were structured with a view to introducing social discussion into the development of science and technology.
Nevertheless, museums were still reserved in some way for scholars, since the language they used in publicizing their exhibitions was long-winded and unintelligible to the layman, even though they were open to the general public and were larger in terms of space Reis, Therefore, the concerns over ending the elitist image of traditional museums which began to be heard in the late s in the United States and Canada 1 , led to new models for science museums: centers for science or equivalent fields Padilla, , spaces where the emphasis was placed on the subject of scientific phenomena and knowledge.
That generation was marked by education through fun, by interactivity, objectifying bringing science to all of society, as a strategy for shattering the intellectual, ideological and cultural monopoly which governed and tainted this information. As described by Padilla , p.
During the aforementioned three decades, we have seen that the public and private agencies charged with funding these areas have very beneficially enabled the emergence and improvement of spaces for scientific education in Brazil, particularly in the State capitals. According to the report:. Reflecting on the uneven distribution of wealth, science and technology resources and educational facilities, science museums are heavily concentrated in few areas of the country 3. Academic valuation of out-of-school activities, particularly in popular science, is still very low. Their activity strategies are geared towards ending the intellectual, cultural and ideological monopoly, in order to function as a mechanism for social inclusion and contribute towards breaking down prevailing attitudes.
But to what extent are contemporary science museums and centers operating as a means of social inclusion, involving all social classes and reaching the farthest corners of Brazil?
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It comprises 13 municipalities, and has approximately 3. The region is nationally recognized for its concentration of urban poverty, together with infrastructure shortfalls and its lack of effective public policies. The inequality seen between the municipalities of Baixada and the city of Rio de Janeiro clearly shows the need to promote development in that region, since this is one of the ways to redress the balance in society in a sustainable manner Brasil, On average, the region of Baixada has an illiteracy rate of 7.
Lisbon Summer School in Linguistics - Centro de Linguística da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa
Table 1. Cultural Facilities in Rio de Janeiro — List 1.
List of activities held at the ECI. From 11 th to 12 th September From 19 th to 22 nd October From 8 th to 12 th November This activity takes place throughout the year, subject to booking. This exhibition enabled us to bring together and hold a dialogue with different areas of knowledge, as well as to establish debates on current topics. It should be pointed out that issues relating to energy have been the subject of intensive discussions over the last few decades, due particularly to environmental aspects which signal the search for new energy alternatives.
Since the invention of the steam engine, our energy sources have changed enormously, giving rise to issues such as: wind power, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, among others. Therefore, the subject of energy is intrinsically linked with economic, social, historical and environmental aspects, thereby enabling discussions about the influence of science on society throughout history.
Lisbon Summer School in Linguistics - Centro de Linguística da Universidade Nova de Lisboa
In plants, photosynthesis. To switch on machines or lights, steam, coal or non-polluting sources such as wind and rivers. These are some of the ways of producing energy — an element which is essential for the working of living organisms and machines on our planet — presented at the Energy and Life exhibition. Graph 1. This entailed 22 state schools from some municipalities in Baixada Fluminense, and involved contributions from 23 teachers.
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These interviews resulted in the answers set out in graph 2 Pereira, Soares and Coutinho-Silva, Graph 2. Themes suggested by teachers. Source: Pereira, Soares and Coutinho-Silva , extractedwith permission. It also dealt with historical aspects relating to the advent of the steam engine, such as the Industrial Revolution in the 18 th Century, which set off profound changes in the world and changed relationships and socio-economic and commercial concepts. Figure 1. It took place over one day and lasted for five hours for each group and had the participation of 24 teachers from the private and public education network in Baixada Fluminense, 11 at the first session and 13 at the second Pereira, Soares and Coutinho-Silva, Ideas were suggested for constructing low-cost equipment based on the models on display at the exhibition; and instruction materials produced for the course were distributed, with footnotes, folders and magazines provided by the Brazilian electrical sector 4.
We noted from the testimonials, as exemplified below, that some teachers had preconceptions regarding some of the themes addressed by the exhibition, while others were unaware of the ECI, but after participating in the mini-course, they understood the importance of making use of this informal education space in their teaching practices Pereira, Soares and Coutinho-Silva, After taking part in this capacity building course, I wanted to do Chemistry or Physics here at IFRJ, and after attending the course my view has changed, I am looking at things differently, I am more interested in science Teacher L.
One school in particular in the municipality of Mesquita came with all of its classes, from Nursery School to Year 9 of Primary Education. All of the 22 teachers who returned brought other teachers with them together with their classes. Figure 2. Figure 3. Teachers in the mini-course interacting with the "Electricity and Magnetism" module. In the press and on television, science is usually presented as a magnificent undertaking, where scientific discoveries are made by particularly high-achieving individuals.
Teachers must not rely solely on the information imposed by the media, and must not regard them as absolute truths. Nevertheless, we know that methods for generating and communicating knowledge are increasingly vast and agile, particularly with the advent of the internet Zamboni, As a result of the constant need to update information and knowledge, initial teacher training on its own ends up being insufficient for any educator throughout his or her career.
It is therefore invaluable for teachers to participate in continuing education programs. Pereira, Soares and Coutinho-Silva noted that, when they come into contact with these spaces via continuing education programs, many teachers regard science museums differently, and start to look at science in a new light, restructuring their pre-conceived ideas about scientific knowledge.
This is likely to influence their teaching practices. We thus stimulated teachers to reflect on the themes in question, and involved them in the process of setting up a science exhibition. In this way, using the museum-school partnership, both can contribute towards improving science education in Brazil, thereby destroying the hegemony of science geared towards a small proportion of the population. Brody, D. The science class you wish you had